The tongue is a muscular organ covered with a mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity. The tongue is composed of a number of muscles, which permit complex movement,…

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Lower Jaw (Mandible)

The lower jaw bears the lower dentition, but also provides support for the muscles of the floor of the mouth, and for the tongue. The lower jaw has the shape…

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Upper Jaw (Maxilla)

The upper jaw includes the upper teeth, but it also supports the center of the face, and supports the bones of the nose and the eye sockets. The bone includes…

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The location of the nose in the center of the face emphasizes its esthetic importance, and presents a reconstructive challenge, whose functional purpose lies primarily in the preservation of the…

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Eye Socket (Orbit)

The eye sockets are the osseous structures containing the eye and its blood vessels, as well as the nerves and muscles that move the eyeball. This structure, on its superior…

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The cranial bones are connected to each other by contiguous sutures, which create the rigid structure that protects the brain. The bones of the skull are constructed from two plates…

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The scalp, the hair-covered skin that covers and protects the skull, is a relatively thin multi-layered tissue of great esthetic importance. The need to perform reconstructive surgery on the scalp…

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