The neck includes important anatomical structures, such as primary blood vessels, nerves, the esophagus, the trachea, and others. Defects in the area of the neck can be a result of…

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Structurally, the esophagus is a muscular pipe lined with a mucous membrane that connects the pharynx and the stomach. Reconstruction of this structure is generally required after the removal of…

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The throat, or the pharynx, is the cavity that communicates the oral cavity and the nasal passages, and ends in the passage to the esophagus and the trachea. Reconstruction of…

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The lips are a vital organ for speech and eating, and have great esthetic importance. The lips are anchored in the upper and lower jaws, and continue into the cheeks.…

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The tongue is a muscular organ covered with a mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity. The tongue is composed of a number of muscles, which permit complex movement,…

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Lower Jaw (Mandible)

The lower jaw bears the lower dentition, but also provides support for the muscles of the floor of the mouth, and for the tongue. The lower jaw has the shape…

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Upper Jaw (Maxilla)

The upper jaw includes the upper teeth, but it also supports the center of the face, and supports the bones of the nose and the eye sockets. The bone includes…

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The location of the nose in the center of the face emphasizes its esthetic importance, and presents a reconstructive challenge, whose functional purpose lies primarily in the preservation of the…

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Eye Socket (Orbit)

The eye sockets are the osseous structures containing the eye and its blood vessels, as well as the nerves and muscles that move the eyeball. This structure, on its superior…

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The cranial bones are connected to each other by contiguous sutures, which create the rigid structure that protects the brain. The bones of the skull are constructed from two plates…

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